Page 6 - CII Artha Magazine 2022
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Focus Story

        Emerging Gig economy:                                 especially in the G20 and   comprehensively covered the          already accounts for nearly 50   ensure workplace safety and                       LOW BARRIERS TO
                                                                                                                               per cent of employment. The
                                                                                          global opportunities and
                                                              BRICS ministerial meetings.
                                                                                                                                                            puts workers in vulnerable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ENTRY AND DOMINO
                                                                                                                                                            situations. The lack of these
                                                                                                                               low barriers to entry and the
                                                                                          challenges workers and
        Opportunities &                                       Since 2015, the ILO has     employers face. For example,         domino effect of the job-loss   traditional benefits makes gig                     EFFECT OF THE
                                                              worked on gig and platform
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  JOB-LOSS CRISIS
                                                                                          skills utilization and
                                                                                                                               crisis brought on by the
                                                                                                                                                            work an insecure form of
                                                              work-related issues. In 2019,
                                                                                                                               COVID-19 pandemic are
                                                                                          inadequate availability of
                                                                                                                                                            employment, especially in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  BROUGHT ON BY THE
                                                              the International Labour
                                                                                          reliable digital infrastructure
                                                                                                                               some reasons that will propel
                                                                                                                                                            low- and middle-income
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COVID-19 PANDEMIC
                                                              Conference (ILC) adopted
                                                                                                                               gig work’s further expansion.
                                                                                          are some challenges workers
                                                                                                                                                            countries. There is an urgent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ARE SOME OF THE
        Challenges for                                        the ILO Centenary           and employers face,                  However, while these         need to protect workers                               REASONS TO PROPEL
                                                              Declaration for the Future of
                                                                                          respectively. However, SMEs
                                                                                                                                                            irrespective of their
                                                                                                                               platforms have the potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GIG WORK'S
                                                              Work, which underlines the
                                                                                                                                                            employment status, which
                                                                                                                               to create new and tailor-made
                                                                                          have particularly benefitted
                                                              need to respond to challenges
                                                                                                                               work arrangements, especially
                                                                                                                                                            requires a coherent and
                                                                                          from location-based
                                                              and opportunities arising in
                                                                                          platforms, and digital
                                                                                                                                                            coordinated international
                                                                                                                               for certain workers, such as
                                                              the world of work, especially
        Job Creation                                          those relating to the global   platforms have also supported     women, persons with          effort.
                                                                                          the growth of startups and
                                                                                                                               disabilities or young people,
                                                              digital transformation of
                                                                                                                                                            Foremostly, the entire digital
                                                                                          even heralded the
                                                                                                                               they are replete with
                                                              which gig work is a part, for
                                                                                                                                                            labour ecosystem will benefit
                                                                                          reorientation of some
                                                                                                                                                            from clarifying some of the
                                                              promoting sustained, inclusive,
                                                              and sustainable economic
                                                              growth, full and productive                                      Digital labour platforms offer   regulatory uncertainties and
                                                                                                                               varying levels of autonomy
                                                                                                                                                            reinforcing that universal
                                                              employment and decent work   GIG WORK                            and flexibility in working   labour standards apply to all
                                                              for all. This was further    EMERGING AS MAIN                    conditions, but workers miss   workers, irrespective of their
                                                              reaffirmed when in 2021, the   SOURCE OF INCOME,                 out on the benefits of       contractual status and of
                                                              ILC adopted the Global Call   ESPECIALLY IN                      traditional workplaces like   which country the worker is
        O    ver the last few       COVID-19 PANDEMIC         to Action for a              DEVELOPING                          wage protection and          based in. Like all other
                                                                                                                                                            workers, platform workers
                                                              human-centred recovery from
                                                                                                                               standardization, paid leaves,
             decades, internet and
        telecom connectivity spread   GAVE TECHNOLOGY         the COVID-19 crisis. It      NATIONS                             and collective bargaining,   are entitled to basic human   employee-employer
        across the world at a       SOLUTIONS AN              acknowledges that safe and                                       among others. Moreover, the   and worker’s rights, to access   relations will get covered   References
        sustained pace. However, the   UNPARALLELED PUSH      healthy working conditions                                       work flexibility and variable   minimum and fair wages, to   under adequate social
                                                                                                                                                                                         protection measures,
        COVID-19 pandemic has                                 are fundamental to decent   A distinct difference between        wages that are initially     enjoy a workplace free from                            •  Digital technologies
        given technology solutions an                         work, including the new     gig work in developed and            attractive can translate into   violence and harassment, to   keeping up with the    and how India can use
        unprecedented acceleration.   Globally, digital labour   modes of employment      developing countries has             long hours and impact        have good working            changing world of work.    it to its advantage;
        In 2020, there were 622    platforms have mushroomed   brought about by the internet   emerged in the varied           work-life balance as workers   conditions, to access social   Globally, workers,     2022
        million active internet users in   in the past decade, from   and teleworking.    research which the ILO has           need to put in more hours to   protection, and be protected   enterprises, governments   •  The role of digital
        India, and it is further poised   around 142 in 2010 to over   The ILO’s 2021 flagship   conducted on this topic. In   earn living wages.           against discriminatory       and the international      labour platforms in
        to increase in the next three   777 in 2020. Of these, eight   report, “The role of digital   developed countries, gig work   The governance on these   conduct and unsafe       community need to reach    transforming the world
        years, rising to 900 million by   per cent of all gig work   labour platforms in   supplements a worker’s              platforms is unilateral.     workplaces among other       a consensus on ensuring    of work – 1st BRICS
        2025. Pandemic related     platforms were based in India   transforming the world of   primary income. However, in     Exclusivity clauses, a fee   benefits.                    the classification of      employment working
        lockdowns brought gig and   in 2020. The country’s digital   work”, provided a broad   developing nations, it is the   charged for accessing the    Digital labour platforms and   workers’ employment      group meeting under
        platform workers, an invisible   economy, along with the   overview of how these   worker’s primary income             platform, deactivation of    the employment they offer    status in accordance with   the 2021 Indian
        but essential workforce, into   information and       platforms are restructuring   source. In India, the two main     workers’ accounts,           will soon become a ‘new      national classification    Presidency; 2021
        the fore, as people the world   communication technologies   work. Through extensive   reasons driving the rise of     performance management at    normal’. These challenges    systems; ensuring
        over relied heavily on online   (ICTs) sector, contributes   surveys and interviews   digital labour are the lack of   the platform’s discretion    must be addressed to harness   transparency and        •  ILO Centenary
        platforms for essential    over 13 per cent to the GDP,   conducted with 12,000   alternative employment               based on digital tools and   the fullest potential of     accountability of the      Declaration for the
        services. Digital labour   while the government aims to        workers in 100     opportunities and the pay            algorithms that run the risk of   technological advancement   algorithms to workers;   Future of Work, 2019
        platforms have become      enhance it to 20 per cent by          countries and    these platforms offer is better      coded biases based on gender,   and digitalization to create a   ensuring platform and   •  Global Call to Action
        integral to contemporary life.   2025. Since the pandemic          about 85       than other forms of                  ethnicities, and physical    future of work that provides   self-employed workers    for a Human-centred
        They have spurred          began, online retail, gig                businesses    employment.                          abilities can further        decent work for all and      have the freedom to enjoy   Recovery from the
        once-in-a-generation       work and other forms of                  worldwide     ILO’s latest World                   disadvantage workers from    sustainable enterprises, as   collective bargaining     COVID-19 crisis; 2021
        innovation, competition, and   self-employment                      from          Employment and Social                accessing the labour market   delineated in the Centenary   without fear of reprisal;   •  The role of digital
        productivity and created   services have risen                      multiple      Outlooks Trends Report 2022          which is already precarious.   Declaration and Global Call   and ensure that all     labour platforms in
        unprecedented opportunities   exponentially. The                    sectors, the   presents that the rise in gig       The work and work            to Action. India's Code on   workers, including platform
        for workers, businesses and   meteoric rise of                       report       work is expanding the pool of        processes are changing       Social Security, 2020 envisages   workers, have access to   transforming the world
        society. At the same time, they   these platforms                                 self-employed contractors.           through these platforms, and   amending and consolidating   adequate social security   of work; 2021
        pose new challenges to     has generated                                          Across several developing            they are shifting the        the existing labour laws and   benefits, by extending and   •  World Employment
        decent work and fair       interest in                                            nations, self-employment             responsibility of investing in   extending them to a wider   adapting policy and legal   and Social Outlook:
        competition.               policy                                                                                                                                                                           Trends 2022
                                   circles,                                                                                    capital assets and operating   array of workers, including gig   frameworks where
                                                                                                                               costs onto the workers. The   and platform workers. This is   necessary.            •  The Code on Social
                                                                Ms. Dagmar Walter, Director, ILO Decent Work Technical         lack of a physical workplace   important as workers outside                          Security, 2020
                                                                 Support Team for South Asia and Country Office for India       makes it near impossible to   of traditional
        06   ANALYSIS, RESEARCH, THOUGHT LEADERSHIP & ADVOCACY                                                                                                                                               ANALYSIS, RESEARCH, THOUGHT LEADERSHIP & ADVOCACY  07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
             MAY 2022                                                                                                                                                                                                          MAY 2022
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