Page 7 - CII Artha Magazine 2022
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Focus Story

 Emerging Gig economy:  especially in the G20 and   comprehensively covered the   already accounts for nearly 50   ensure workplace safety and   LOW BARRIERS TO
        per cent of employment. The
 global opportunities and
 BRICS ministerial meetings.
                                     puts workers in vulnerable
                                                                                           ENTRY AND DOMINO
                                     situations. The lack of these
        low barriers to entry and the
 challenges workers and
 Opportunities &  Since 2015, the ILO has   employers face. For example,   domino effect of the job-loss   traditional benefits makes gig   EFFECT OF THE
 worked on gig and platform
                                                                                           JOB-LOSS CRISIS
 skills utilization and
        crisis brought on by the
                                     work an insecure form of
 work-related issues. In 2019,
        COVID-19 pandemic are
 inadequate availability of
                                     employment, especially in
                                                                                           BROUGHT ON BY THE
 the International Labour
 reliable digital infrastructure
        some reasons that will propel
                                     low- and middle-income
                                                                                           COVID-19 PANDEMIC
 Conference (ILC) adopted
        gig work’s further expansion.
 are some challenges workers
                                     countries. There is an urgent
                                                                                           ARE SOME OF THE
 Challenges for  the ILO Centenary   and employers face,   However, while these   need to protect workers   REASONS TO PROPEL
 Declaration for the Future of
 respectively. However, SMEs
                                     irrespective of their
        platforms have the potential
                                                                                           GIG WORK'S
 Work, which underlines the
                                     employment status, which
        to create new and tailor-made
 have particularly benefitted
 need to respond to challenges
        work arrangements, especially
                                     requires a coherent and
 from location-based
 and opportunities arising in
 platforms, and digital
                                     coordinated international
        for certain workers, such as
 the world of work, especially
 Job Creation  those relating to the global   platforms have also supported   women, persons with   effort.
 the growth of startups and
        disabilities or young people,
 digital transformation of
                                     Foremostly, the entire digital
 even heralded the
        they are replete with
 which gig work is a part, for
                                     labour ecosystem will benefit
 reorientation of some
                                     from clarifying some of the
 promoting sustained, inclusive,
 and sustainable economic
 growth, full and productive   Digital labour platforms offer   regulatory uncertainties and
        varying levels of autonomy
                                     reinforcing that universal
 employment and decent work   GIG WORK   and flexibility in working   labour standards apply to all
 for all. This was further   EMERGING AS MAIN   conditions, but workers miss   workers, irrespective of their
 reaffirmed when in 2021, the   SOURCE OF INCOME,   out on the benefits of   contractual status and of
 ILC adopted the Global Call   ESPECIALLY IN   traditional workplaces like   which country the worker is
 O ver the last few   COVID-19 PANDEMIC   to Action for a   DEVELOPING   wage protection and   based in. Like all other
                                     workers, platform workers
 human-centred recovery from
        standardization, paid leaves,
 decades, internet and
 telecom connectivity spread   GAVE TECHNOLOGY   the COVID-19 crisis. It   NATIONS  and collective bargaining,   are entitled to basic human   employee-employer
 across the world at a   SOLUTIONS AN   acknowledges that safe and   among others. Moreover, the   and worker’s rights, to access   relations will get covered   References
 sustained pace. However, the   UNPARALLELED PUSH  healthy working conditions   work flexibility and variable   minimum and fair wages, to   under adequate social
                                                                  protection measures,
 COVID-19 pandemic has   are fundamental to decent   A distinct difference between   wages that are initially   enjoy a workplace free from   •  Digital technologies
 given technology solutions an   work, including the new   gig work in developed and   attractive can translate into   violence and harassment, to   keeping up with the   and how India can use
 unprecedented acceleration.   Globally, digital labour   modes of employment   developing countries has   long hours and impact   have good working   changing world of work.  it to its advantage;
 In 2020, there were 622   platforms have mushroomed   brought about by the internet   emerged in the varied   work-life balance as workers   conditions, to access social   Globally, workers,   2022
 million active internet users in   in the past decade, from   and teleworking.  research which the ILO has   need to put in more hours to   protection, and be protected   enterprises, governments   •  The role of digital
 India, and it is further poised   around 142 in 2010 to over   The ILO’s 2021 flagship   conducted on this topic. In   earn living wages.   against discriminatory   and the international   labour platforms in
 to increase in the next three   777 in 2020. Of these, eight   report, “The role of digital   developed countries, gig work   The governance on these   conduct and unsafe   community need to reach   transforming the world
 years, rising to 900 million by   per cent of all gig work   labour platforms in   supplements a worker’s   platforms is unilateral.   workplaces among other   a consensus on ensuring   of work – 1st BRICS
 2025. Pandemic related   platforms were based in India   transforming the world of   primary income. However, in   Exclusivity clauses, a fee   benefits.   the classification of   employment working
 lockdowns brought gig and   in 2020. The country’s digital   work”, provided a broad   developing nations, it is the   charged for accessing the   Digital labour platforms and   workers’ employment   group meeting under
 platform workers, an invisible   economy, along with the   overview of how these   worker’s primary income   platform, deactivation of   the employment they offer   status in accordance with   the 2021 Indian
 but essential workforce, into   information and   platforms are restructuring   source. In India, the two main   workers’ accounts,   will soon become a ‘new   national classification   Presidency; 2021
 the fore, as people the world   communication technologies   work. Through extensive   reasons driving the rise of   performance management at   normal’. These challenges   systems; ensuring
 over relied heavily on online   (ICTs) sector, contributes   surveys and interviews   digital labour are the lack of   the platform’s discretion   must be addressed to harness   transparency and   •  ILO Centenary
 platforms for essential   over 13 per cent to the GDP,   conducted with 12,000   alternative employment   based on digital tools and   the fullest potential of   accountability of the   Declaration for the
 services. Digital labour   while the government aims to   workers in 100   opportunities and the pay   algorithms that run the risk of   technological advancement   algorithms to workers;   Future of Work, 2019
 platforms have become   enhance it to 20 per cent by   countries and   these platforms offer is better   coded biases based on gender,   and digitalization to create a   ensuring platform and   •  Global Call to Action
 integral to contemporary life.   2025. Since the pandemic   about 85   than other forms of   ethnicities, and physical   future of work that provides   self-employed workers   for a Human-centred
 They have spurred   began, online retail, gig   businesses   employment.   abilities can further   decent work for all and   have the freedom to enjoy   Recovery from the
 once-in-a-generation   work and other forms of   worldwide   ILO’s latest World   disadvantage workers from   sustainable enterprises, as   collective bargaining   COVID-19 crisis; 2021
 innovation, competition, and   self-employment   from   Employment and Social   accessing the labour market   delineated in the Centenary   without fear of reprisal;   •  The role of digital
 productivity and created   services have risen   multiple   Outlooks Trends Report 2022   which is already precarious.   Declaration and Global Call   and ensure that all   labour platforms in
 unprecedented opportunities   exponentially. The   sectors, the   presents that the rise in gig   The work and work   to Action. India's Code on   workers, including platform
 for workers, businesses and   meteoric rise of   report   work is expanding the pool of   processes are changing   Social Security, 2020 envisages   workers, have access to   transforming the world
 society. At the same time, they   these platforms   self-employed contractors.   through these platforms, and   amending and consolidating   adequate social security   of work; 2021
 pose new challenges to   has generated   Across several developing   they are shifting the   the existing labour laws and   benefits, by extending and   •  World Employment
 decent work and fair   interest in   nations, self-employment   responsibility of investing in   extending them to a wider   adapting policy and legal   and Social Outlook:
 competition.  policy                                                                        Trends 2022
 circles,   capital assets and operating   array of workers, including gig   frameworks where
        costs onto the workers. The   and platform workers. This is   necessary.            •  The Code on Social
 Ms. Dagmar Walter, Director, ILO Decent Work Technical   lack of a physical workplace   important as workers outside   Security, 2020
 Support Team for South Asia and Country Office for India  makes it near impossible to   of traditional
                                                                                           QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
 MAY 2022                                                                                               MAY 2022
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